February 11, 2024

Understanding Hangovers: How Alcohol Affects Your Body & The Case for Abstinence

This article explores how alcohol affects your body, the science behind hangovers, and the benefits of abstinence for gaining clarity in our lives.

How Alcohol Consumption Causes Hangovers

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Contributors & Editors

Julie Miller

Addiction & Mental Health Writer

Last Update on February 11, 2024

grief and loss signs and symptoms

Let us help you start your journey to recovery.

Get compassionate evidence- based and trauma focused substance abuse treatment in Arizona.



Have you ever wondered why you feel so terrible in the morning after drinking alcohol?

Hangovers are a sobering reminder of how alcohol affects our bodies.

It’s not just about the temporary aches and nausea; alcohol has a significant impact on our health, and cutting back or quitting can significantly improve our lives.

Keep reading as we explore how alcohol affects your body, the science behind hangovers, and the benefits of abstinence for gaining clarity in our lives.

Key Takeaways:


What causes a hangover after drinking alcohol? Alcohol consumption can cause a hangover, which results from dehydration, toxic effects of acetaldehyde, congeners in some alcoholic beverages, and sleep and gastrointestinal disruptions. Hangovers cause common symptoms like headache, nausea, fatigue, and dizziness.

What Causes a Hangover?

Alcohol not only gives a temporary buzz, but it can also lead to a complex interaction that causes hangover symptoms.

Once alcohol enters your system, it disrupts your body’s balance and affects your brain and hydration levels.

This disruption is the leading cause of a hangover, as your body tries to get rid of the toxic byproducts of alcohol metabolism and restore lost fluids and nutrients.

The severity of hangover symptoms, such as headaches, fatigue, and nausea, can vary depending on how much alcohol you consume, your physiology, and even the type of drinks you choose.

It’s essential to understand the impact of alcohol consumption and consider moderation or abstinence to maintain your health and well-being.


What role does dehydration play in hangovers? Dehydration is a major contributor to hangover symptoms, such as headache and thirst, because alcohol is a diuretic, which increases fluid loss.


Alcohol’s not-so-secret side effect, dehydration, plays a pivotal role in how we experience hangovers.1

When alcohol enters your body, it acts as a diuretic, increasing the rate at which your body expels fluids through urination.

This loss of fluid leads to dehydration, a condition that significantly impacts how alcohol affects your body, particularly the next day.

Dehydration isn’t just about feeling thirsty; it’s about your body losing essential electrolytes and water, which are critical for its normal function.

This imbalance is what contributes to classic hangover symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, and dry mouth.

Understanding the connection between dehydration and hangovers highlights the importance of hydrating while drinking alcohol.

It’s not merely about how long a hangover lasts but how severe it feels, making water your best friend during a night out and a crucial ally in mitigating the morning-after effects.

Toxic Acetaldehyde

At the heart of how alcohol affects your body lies a toxic substance known as acetaldehyde, a byproduct of the alcohol metabolism process in the liver.2

This harmful compound plays a significant role not only in the manifestation of hangover symptoms but also in the overarching health risks associated with alcohol consumption.

When you drink, your liver works overtime to break down alcohol, converting it into acetaldehyde before finally transforming it into a less harmful substance, acetate.

However, acetaldehyde is more toxic than the alcohol itself, and its accumulation in the body can lead to the familiar feelings of nausea, headaches, and increased heart rate, characteristic of a hangover.

Beyond the immediate discomfort, prolonged exposure to elevated levels of acetaldehyde from frequent drinking can contribute to more serious health issues, including liver damage and an increased risk of certain cancers.

This underscores the critical nature of understanding what is considered alcohol abuse and why moderation or abstinence is vital to minimizing these risks.


Are some types of alcohol worse for hangovers? Yes, darker liquors like whiskey and red wine contain congeners, which can exacerbate hangover symptoms compared to clearer alcohols like vodka.

Congeners and Additives

Aside from alcohol’s primary effects on the body, the presence of congeners and additives in various alcoholic beverages contributes an extra layer of complexity to the hangover equation.

Congeners are chemical byproducts of the fermentation process, found in higher concentrations in darker liquors like whiskey, brandy, and red wine.

These substances contribute to the flavor and aroma of the drinks but come with a downside: they significantly exacerbate hangover symptoms.

They can increase the overall health risks of alcohol consumption.

The impact of congeners on the body can range from intensifying headaches and nausea to contributing to the feeling of sluggishness and malaise that can last longer than the average hangover.

This highlights the importance of being mindful of what types of alcohol one chooses to consume and serves as a compelling argument for considering abstinence or moderation.

Understanding the role of congeners and additives in how alcohol affects your body underscores the nuanced nature of alcohol consumption and its potential health implications, making a strong case for informed drinking choices.

Gastrointestinal Effects

The way alcohol influences the body extends into the realm of gastrointestinal health, where its negative impact on the stomach and digestive system cannot be overstated.

Alcohol irritates the stomach lining, leading to increased acid production and potentially resulting in inflammation or gastritis, conditions that exemplify the immediate discomfort many experience after drinking.

This irritation can cause a range of symptoms, from simple indigestion to severe nausea, highlighting a direct link between gastrointestinal disturbances and the acute effects of alcohol consumption.

Following the immediate aftermath, the chronic misuse of alcohol can result in more severe and long-term health issues, including ulcers, chronic gastritis, and even an elevated risk of gastrointestinal cancers.

These potential outcomes serve as a stark reminder of the consequences of how alcohol affects your body, emphasizing the importance of abstinence to protect against these harmful effects and maintain overall gastrointestinal health.

How Alcohol Consumption Causes Hangovers

Symptoms of a Hangover

The aftermath of alcohol consumption can manifest in a myriad of ways, affecting nearly every aspect of your daily life.

Common hangover symptoms range from physical to cognitive, each with its own impact on your ability to function normally.

Physical Symptoms

Physical Symptoms:

  • Headache and muscle aches: Due to dehydration and the body’s reaction to alcohol toxins.
  • Nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain: Resulting from irritation of the stomach lining and increased acid production.
  • Dehydration: Characterized by thirst, dry mouth, and dizziness, stemming from alcohol’s diuretic effect.
  • Fatigue and weakness: Caused by poor sleep quality and the energy expended by the body to metabolize alcohol.
  • Increased sensitivity to light and sound: Due to the physiological stress on the body.
  • Dizziness and a sense of the room spinning: Linked to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.

Alcohol consumption can cause a range of physical discomforts that serve as a reminder of its potent effects on the body.

After drinking, people often experience headaches, muscle aches, and dehydration due to alcohol’s inflammatory response in the body.

Alcohol can also irritate the stomach lining, leading to nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain, and disrupt normal digestion.

Alcohol’s diuretic properties can cause excessive fluid loss, resulting in intense thirst, dry mouth, and dizziness.

The body’s exhaustive efforts to metabolize and eliminate alcohol can also lead to fatigue, in addition to poor sleep quality.

These physical symptoms can reduce productivity and hinder daily activities, highlighting the significant toll that alcohol can take on the human body.

Cognitive and Emotional Symptoms

Cognitive Symptoms:

  • Impaired memory: Difficulty recalling events from the time of alcohol consumption.
  • Decreased attention span: Struggling to focus on tasks or conversations.
  • Reduced coordination: Affecting balance and fine motor skills.
  • Slowed reaction times: Impacting decision-making and physical responses.


Emotional Symptoms:

  • Anxiety: Feelings of nervousness or unease about one’s actions while drinking or about the day ahead.
  • Depression: Low mood and sadness, sometimes exacerbated by the physiological effects of alcohol.
  • Irritability: A shorter temper and lower tolerance for stress or frustration.
  • Mood swings: Rapid changes in emotional state without a clear cause

The cognitive and emotional aftermath of alcohol consumption reveals a less visible, yet equally impactful, side of its effects on human health.

Alcohol can significantly impair cognitive functions, leading to difficulties in memory retention, which manifests as gaps in recall of events that occurred while drinking.3

This cognitive fog is accompanied by decreased attention spans and impaired judgment, making routine tasks or decisions more challenging.

Furthermore, alcohol’s impact on the central nervous system can slow reaction times and reduce coordination, further compounding these cognitive deficits.

On the emotional spectrum, the repercussions of alcohol use are profound, with individuals often experiencing heightened anxiety, bouts of depression, and increased irritability.

These emotional disturbances can exacerbate existing mental health issues or lead to new ones, affecting not only the individual’s mood but also their interactions with others and overall quality of life.

The intertwining of cognitive and emotional symptoms underscores the complex and pervasive nature of alcohol’s impact on mental health and cognitive function, highlighting the importance of abstaining from alcohol to maintain mental well-being.

The Benefits of Abstinence

Abstaining from alcohol can lead to a range of benefits for both physical and mental health, making a sober lifestyle a transformative choice.

Those who opt for abstinence often report improved overall well-being, including higher energy levels, better sleep quality, and a stronger immune system.

This is because when the body is free from processing alcohol, it can function more efficiently.

Abstaining from alcohol can also have a positive impact on mental health.

Many people report experiencing clearer thinking, reduced anxiety, and a more stable mood, which can lead to a more balanced and peaceful state of mind.

Personal stories and testimonials from people who have chosen to abstain from alcohol illustrate these benefits, with many sharing how they have regained their health, relationships, and productivity.

These stories are a reminder that not drinking alcohol can be a crucial step towards a healthier and more fulfilling life.

Support Systems and Treatment Options

Seeking assistance for alcohol dependence is the critical first step on a transformative journey toward recovery, emphasizing the importance of acknowledging the need for help.

A wide range of support mechanisms, including specialized alcohol addiction rehab programs, offer comprehensive care tailored to the unique challenges of overcoming alcoholism.

These facilities ensure a safe and structured environment for medical care, detoxification, and therapy sessions aimed at addressing the root causes of addiction.

Additionally, the landscape of treatment options is diverse, with detoxification programs providing a medically supervised start, while inpatient and outpatient treatment programs create structured recovery environments.

Support groups like Alcoholics Anonymous and therapy, including individual and group counseling, play crucial roles in recovery, offering a sense of community and equipping individuals with necessary coping strategies.

Medication-assisted treatment is also an option, aiding in managing withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

This holistic and personalized approach highlights the essential role of professional help and the supportive community in navigating the complexities of recovery, ultimately paving the way for a healthier, alcohol-free life.

Embracing Abstinence and Living Alcohol Free

Understanding the effects of alcohol reveals the significant impact it has on health, from the immediate repercussions of dehydration to the more severe, long-term risks of chronic consumption.

However, choosing a sober lifestyle can bring profound benefits.

It can improve physical health, mental clarity, and emotional stability.

It not only fosters personal growth but also strengthens community well-being.

Those facing challenges with alcohol use can find a wide range of support options, including professional treatment, support groups, and counseling.

Embracing a lifestyle free from alcohol can further empower and uplift others while promoting a more fulfilling and joyful existence!

Share this Article


Author & Reviewers

julie miller recovery writer and author
Julie is a recovery advocate, with over two years sober. She is a recovery speaker who believes people can change for the better. Her mission is to write factual, helpful information about addiction, treatment, and recovery. She believes that no one should be left in the dark about the process at any stage of their recovery.
lionel estrada lisac clinical director

Lionel is the Clinical Director of Cornerstone’s treatment facilities in Arizona. He has had over 4 years at Cornerstone. He is personally in recovery and passionate about helping others overcome substance abuse and mental health challenges, he is trained as an EMDR, adopting a trauma-informed approach to treat the underlying issues of conditions.

More From Our Resources

Can a DUI Get You Deported?

Can a DUI Get You Deported?

Can a DUI get you deported? For non-citizens, a DUI conviction can lead to severe consequences beyond fines, license suspension,…
How Marijuana Alters Brain Development

How Marijuana Alters Brain Development

As marijuana legalization sweeps across the nation, it's more important than ever to understand the potential risks associated with its…
Can a DUI Affect Your Job?

Can a DUI Affect Your Job?

A DUI conviction can have far-reaching effects on your professional life, making it important to understand the potential ramifications and…
Physical Symptoms of Anxiety

Physical Symptoms of Anxiety

Anxiety is not just a mental struggle; it can also take a significant toll on the body. When a person…